Computer Motherboard Components and the Functions – You Should Know

A computer motherboard with an Intel CPU

One of the first requirements of making a great PC is choosing a powerful motherboard. It plays a major role in determining the smoothness of the PC. If you want to get the best one, you need to know what the components are and their functions. There are plenty of components available in a motherboard. The motherboard is the brain of the computer that makes sure all the other systems are up and running very well.

There are some other names available for the motherboard, such as mainboard, printed wired board, system board, and others. Some of the crucial components that are attached to the motherboard include memory, processor, expansion slots, and others. Here are some of the most important components and their functions given below.

Crucial Components Of Motherboard And Their Functions

1. USB

USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a general connecting medium that helps to transfer files. You can connect devices like scanners, mouses, keyboards, printers, cameras, mobile devices, and others. The USB connector is easily distinguishable as they come with a rectangular shape and different sizes. The best part about USB cables is that you can remove or insert them whenever you want without restarting the computer.

2. Mouse and Keyboard

Both mouse and keyboard are connected to ports of the motherboard. Most PCs have a keyboard post available in the motherboard where you can directly connect. However, recently the oldest type is getting replaced with the mini DIN PS/2-style keyboard connector.

However, you can use a converter to use the AT-style keyboard that comes with a PS/2-style socket. They are also getting used to mice in more modern PCs. Fortunately, if a PC uses the mini-DIN for both mouse and keyboard, they are marked to be used correctly. There are some keyboards that come with a USB connection, but they are rare.

3. RAM Slots

RAM (Random Access Memory) is used to store data and program by the CPU. Ram is measured using bytes and packaged in a lot of ways. This is the memory of the computer that can be read and written. As a result, ram is much faster compared to all the other direct-access storage devices like magnetic tapes, hard drives, CD/DVD, and others.

4. BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)

BIOS is also very popular as PC BIOS, system BIOS, ROM BIOS, etc. It is firmware that is mainly used at the time of the booting process to perform the hardware initialization. Also, it helps to provide many runtime services for programs and operating systems. This is the first software that is designed to run when the power is on.

5. CPU Chip

CPU (Central Processing Unit) is circuitry in the computer that executes different instructions that make up a program. This component is also known as the main processor or the central processor. It helps to execute some of the basic tasks like controlling the output and input operations, arithmetic, basic logic, and others with the specified instructions by the desktop programs.

Computer RAM memory boards installed in a motherboard

6. CPU Slot

Every motherboard comes with a CPU slot or processor socket. Almost every motherboard comes with one or more components that provide connections between microprocessors and PCB. Thus, you can install a CPU on the motherboard without the soldering process.

7. Northbridge/Southbridge

There are only two chips in the chipset of a motherboard. You need to know what motherboard slot has direct access to the north bridge. Northbridge is connected to the CPU with the FSB (Front-side bus). It is responsible for tasks that require the highest performance.

On the other hand, the Southbridge helps the slower capabilities of the motherboard in the Southbridge/Northbridge chipset. Together Southbridge and Northbridge bridge the communication from the CPU and the other motherboard components.

8. I/O Port

I/O Port, also known as the input and output ports, are known for connecting the CPU to the other devices of the motherboard. There are primarily two main processes to perform output and input processes: port-mapped I/O (PMIO) and memory-mapped I/O (MMIO). Apart from that, you can also use dedicated input and output processors known as channels on the mainframe computers.

9. PCI Slot

Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) is very well known for connecting a computer to hardware and supporting all functions. PCI is a well-known high-speed computer that is designed to replace the older PCI-X, PCI, AGP, and others.

10. AGP Slot

AGP, also known as Accelerated Graphics Port slot, is a very high-speed point-to-point channel connecting a video card to the computer system. It is also used to accelerate 3D computer graphics.


Before you choose one of the crucial components of the computer, the motherboard, you need to know more about it. There are plenty of components available with different functions. Here you will be able to learn about some of the components and their functions. Make sure to go through the whole article and share it with others if you like it.

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